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Sidi Bouzid One Year On: Dignity, Stagnation

One year has passed since Mohammed Bouazizi set himself ablaze in Sidi Bouzid. His act had inspired the revolutions throughout the region, most of which have subsequently been rolled back by military authorities, co-opted by religious conservatives, and overtaken by bitter violence. But in Sidi Bouzid on Saturday, the ...  Read More »

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Morocco's Next Government: New Actors, Same Script

Several weeks have passed since Morocco’s most recent parliamentary elections. These yielded a victory for the Islamist Party of Justice and Development (PJD), whose leader, Abdelilah Benkirane, has been appointed as prime minister (or, as the recent constitution dictates, “Chief of Government”). Benkirane’s first ...  Read More »

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Holding Libya Together: Security Challenges After Qadhafi

[The following is the latest from International Crisis Group on Libya]. Holding Libya Together: Security Challenges After Qadhafi EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS As the recent upsurge of violence dramatically illustrates, the militias that were decisive in ousting Qadhafi’s regime are becoming a significant ...  Read More »

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Tunisia's Election Results and the Question of Minorities

Now that the votes have been tallied and the victors of Tunisia’s 23 October elections have been announced, the country’s Constituent Assembly is finally beginning to take shape. With the blue ink still fading from Tunisian voters’ index fingers, all eyes are fixed on the composition of Tunisia’s first ...  Read More »

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Remember, Remember, the 25th of November: Morocco's Elections and Reforms

On 1 July 2011, Moroccans took part in a constitutional referendum, resulting in what is now Morocco's sixth constitution since 1962. Similar to previous constitutions, direction was taken solely from the pinnacle of Moroccan society, leaving the majority voiceless. Members of the February 20th Movement, inspired by ...  Read More »

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November Culture Bouquet

Flowers in November? Yes! After a long, hot summer’s break Jadaliyya Culture returns with another bouquet, as bright as any we have given you before, but this time a bit heavier. Maybe as heavy as a pagan rock sitting on display in the national museum of a theocratic state. Highlights include: — Hamdy ...  Read More »

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Four Poems by Mohammed Khair-Eddin

Mohammed Khair-Eddine (1941-1995) is considered one of the most compelling Moroccan writers of the twentieth century. Born and raised in the southern Berber Moroccan town of Tafraout, Khair-Eddine moved to France in 1965. In 1979 he returned to Morocco where he lived until his death in Rabat in 1995. Mohammed ...  Read More »

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On the Death of Libya's Tyrant

An understanding of the context of Muammar Gaddafi’s demise helps explain why it happened as it did. It also has important repercussions for the future of Libya, since his killing raises important questions about Libyan judicial, military and social processes. Gaddafi’s rule lasted for over four decades—long enough ...  Read More »

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Primo Levi in the Year of Assassinations

Next year will mark twenty-five years since the great Jewish-Italian writer Primo Levi either fell or jumped to his death down the stairwell of his Turin apartment. This year has given us two important cultural products that engage with Levi the chemist, writer, and Auschwitz survivor—a collection of essays published ...  Read More »

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Africa without Qaddafi: The Case of Chad

[The following is the latest from International Crisis Group (ICG) on the impact of Qaddafi's death on neighboring countries.] Africa without Qaddafi: The Case of Chad Executive Summary The end of the long reign of Muammar Qaddafi, killed on 20 October in his hometown of Syrte, opens the way to democracy in ...  Read More »

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Films for the Classroom: Silences of the Palace

Silences of the Palace [Samt al-Qusur], directed by Moufida Tlatli. France/Tunisia, 1994. As a lover of film, I am often asked about my favorites. And as a lover of Arab film in particular, I am usually expected by friends and colleagues to begin with a paean to the Egyptian cinema. Growing up in the home of an ...  Read More »

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An Interview with Hisham Matar

On 22 August, the day Libyan rebel forces took Tripoli, acclaimed author and son of Libya, Hisham Matar, opened an impassioned essay with, “We got rid of Muammar Qaddafi. I never thought I would be able to write these words. I thought it might have to be something like: ‘Qaddafi has died of old age’; a terrible ...  Read More »

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Flowering of the Arab Spring: Understanding Tunisia’s Elections Results

In early 1994 a small Islamic think tank affiliated with the University of South Florida (USF) planned an academic forum to host Rachid Ghannouchi, the leader of the main opposition party in Tunisia, Ennahdha. The objective of this annual event was to give Western academics and intellectuals a rare opportunity to ...  Read More »

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The New Hybridities of Arab Musical Intifadas

"My music may be soft, but I'm a warrior on stage." So declared Tunisian singer Emel Mathlouthi as she explained how a girl who started off playing covers for melodic death metal bands like In Flames, Dark Tranquility, and The Gathering wound up electrifying her fellow protesters in front of the Municipal ...  Read More »

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If the Libyan War Was About Saving Lives, It Was a Catastrophic Failure

As the most hopeful offshoot of the "Arab spring" so far flowered this week in successful elections in Tunisia, its ugliest underside has been laid bare in Libya. That's not only, or even mainly, about the YouTube lynching of Qaddafi, courtesy of a NATO attack on his convoy. The grisly killing of the Libyan ...  Read More »

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De Blogueros a Redactores de la Constitucion

[This article was written in English by Mischa Benoit-Lavelle and translated/published in Spanish by] De Blogueros a Redactores de la Constitución [Traducción para Rebelión de Loles Oliván] En Túnez, el único país de las revoluciones de la primavera árabe con fecha fijada ...  Read More »

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"After 42 Years": Poet Khaled Mattawa Reading His Latest Piece (Audio Clip)

The following is an audio clip of Libyan poet Khaled Mattawa reading his latest piece, entitled "After 42 Years," performed in the aftermath of Qaddafi's death.        Read More »

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The Battle for Tunisia

Only days prior to the 23 October elections for a national constituent assembly, Tunisia continues to be an embattled and profoundly polarized terrain. Since the ouster of Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali in January, peaceful and less than peaceful demonstrations and sit-ins have routinely taken place throughout the country, ...  Read More »

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Collage of Images from Social Media Today

. . . . . . .          By: Eirs Bors "Wuroud Qasem" Hurwitt Eyad Shataiwe  Read More »

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From Blogging to Writing the Constitution

In Tunisia, the only country of the Arab Spring revolutions with a definite date set for free elections—October 23, 2011—the consensus among many activists is that the revolution has stalled. The interior ministry, where protestors dramatically demanded the exit of Ben Ali, is now surrounded by barbed wire and ...  Read More »

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Sovereign Wealth and Ruler Loot

The mobility of capital, depending on one’s position, is a virtue or a vice. Since the onset of the Arab Spring, a lot of money has been moving in, out, and around the Middle East. In the classic liberal world, the mobility of money is governed by the market. In the real world however, politics has a say. Some of ...  Read More »

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The Shibboleths within Albert Memmi's Universalism

Albert Memmi, Decolonization and the Decolonized. Minneapolis & London: University of Minnesota Press, 2006.  “What? Post-colonialism? Have they left?” - Aborigine activist Bobbi Sykes’ comment at an academic conference on post-colonialism[1] Is there a place for “Muslim” or “Arab” peoples in “Western” ...  Read More »

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Manoubia and Her Son

Yesterday the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to three women–two Liberians and a Yemeni–for, in the words of the selection committee, “their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work.” While I have no doubt about the merit of these courageous ...  Read More »

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Reimagining Foreclosure as a World-Making Project

Foreclosed: Between Crisis and Possibility. Curated by Jennifer Burris, Sofía Olascoaga, Sadia Shirazi, and Gaia Tedone, Helena Rubinstein Curatorial Fellows of the Whitney Independent Study Program, 2010-2011. May 20 - June 11, 2011 The Kitchen, 512 West 19th Street, New York, NY One sticky summer afternoon, I ...  Read More »

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Algeria and the Arab Spring: A View from the Forest

Algeria has been back in the “Arab Spring” headlines this month, though for more ambiguous reasons than the lifting of the state of emergency in February.  Since the fall of Qaddafi, Algeria’s role has been cast as a bastion of the military elite, on the one hand, and a quiet supporter of Qaddafi’s regime, on the ...  Read More »

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Doctors without Borders on the Situation in Tripoli

[The following report was issued by Médecins Sans Frontières on August 28, 2011. It was recently published on Médecins Sans Frontières Australia.] Libya: “Almost all of the hospitals around the city are receiving wounded” Libya / 25.08.11 A three-person Médecins Sans Frontières team is currently in Tripoli with ...  Read More »

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Interview with Ali Ahmida, Gilbert Achcar, and David Smith on Situation in Libya

AUDIO PLAYER BELOW The fall of Qaddafi's Tripoli to Libyan rebels has raised a host of new questions and intensified existing debates about the nature and fate of the Libyan uprising. As the peaceful uprising in Libya shifted towards an open rebellion in the face of a violent response by Qaddafi's regime, various ...  Read More »

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The Never Ending Story: Protests and Constitutions in Morocco

On 1 July 2011, Moroccans went to the polls in a referendum promoted by King Mohammed VI to approve a new constitution to replace that of 1996. A vote of over ninety-eight percent, in an official turnout of over seventy-two percent, unsurprisingly approved the new text. The new constitution supposedly represents a ...  Read More »

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Rap Rage Revolt

Two months ago the private radio station Mosaïque FM asked Rachid Ghannouchi whether he preferred rap music or mizwid (Tunisia’s most popular sha‘bi or folk music, whose name derives from the main instrument that accompanies the singing, i.e., the goatskin bagpipe). Ghannouchi, leader of Ennahda (Renaissance), the ...  Read More »

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Hope, Translated

Laila Lalami, Hope and Other Dangerous Pursuits. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin, 2005. Tahar Ben Jelloun, A Palace in the Old Village. Translated by Linda Coverdale. New York: Penguin, 2011. Already, the narratives of the Arab Spring dominating the American media have a nebulous relationship with the human stories ...  Read More »

About Maghreb Page

Jadaliyya’s Maghreb Page delivers exclusive coverage on Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia, and the Western Sahara. As the role of the Greater Maghreb has been pivotal in the regional movements, it is imperative that coverage remains consistent and relevant. Jadaliyya offers incisive analysis--in Arabic, French, and English--through an academic and critical perspective.

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Population (July 2016 est.)40,263,711
GDP (2016 est.)$609.4 billion
(2016 est.)9.9%
Youth Unemployment (ages 15-24;
2014 est.): 25.3%
Military Expenditures 
(/GDP, 2016 est.)6%
Health Expenditures (/GDP, 2014 est.): 7.2%


Population (2015 est.)6,597,960
($US billions; 2016 est.)90.89
Unemployment (2004 est.)30%
Youth Unemployment (ages 15-24):
Military Expenditures: 
3.9% of GDP 
Health Expenditures (/GDP, 2014 est.): 5% 


Population (2016 est.): 3,677,293
$7.242 billion
Unemployment (2016 est.)12.8% 
Youth Unemployment (ages 15-24): 67%
Military Expenditures (/GDP, 2014 est.): 2.67%
Health Expenditures (/GDP, 2014 est.): 3.8% 


Population (2016 est.)33,655,786
GDP ($US billions, 2016 est.):  $282.8
Unemployment (2016 est.): 9.9%;
Youth Unemployment (ages 15-24, 2014 est.): 20%
Military Expenditures (/GDP, 2015 est.): 3.25%
Health Expenditures (/GDP, 2014 est.)5.9% 


Population (2016 est.)11,134,588
GDP ($US billion, 2016 est.): $130.8 billion
Unemployment (2016 est.): 14%;
Youth Unemployment (ages 15-24, 2012 est.): 37.8%
Military Expenditures (/GDP, 2015 est.)2.28%
Health Expenditures (/GDP, 2014 est.)7%

Western Sahara:

Population (2016 est.)587,020
GDP ($US million, 2007 est.):  $906.5
Unemployment: n/a
Youth Unemployment (ages 15-24): n/a
Military Expenditures
Health Expenditures

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